Hard hats or safety helmets, are a type of personal protection equipment (PPE) made to shield the face and head from potential occupational risks. They are frequently used in hazardous work situations including disaster response, rescue operations, and electrical work as well as in industries like building, manufacturing, and mining.

Safety helmets typically have a hard outer shell that protects against impacts, penetration, and electrical shock and are made of a strong, impact-resistant material like polycarbonate. To help absorb and diffuse the energy of an impact, the interior lining of the helmet is often comprised of foam or another shock-absorbing material.

Safety helmets come in a variety of styles, including full-brim, cap-style, and bump-cap models; each is created to fulfil particular needs and specifications. To ensure that the helmet fits properly and is worn in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and any applicable safety standards, it is crucial to select the appropriate type of helmet for the particular work environment and task being performed.

To keep them functioning as a head and face protector, safety helmets should be frequently checked for signs of damage or wear and replaced as necessary.